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Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor.Persian adventurer Saadat Khan, also known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow.He became a puppet king, and in a treaty of 1801, yielded large part of Awadh to the East India Company while also agreeing to disband his own troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army.This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal of the East India Company, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.The British East India Company appointed a resident (ambassador) in 1773 and by early 19th century gained control of more territory and authority in the state.They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.Lucknow is the centre of Shia Islam in India with the highest Shia Muslim population in India.Historically, the capital of Awadh was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate which later came under the Mughal rule. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj.
Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, and the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries.
It later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region.
The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital.
The city became North India's cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts.
Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place.
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In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate.